It basically measures the relationship between received citations and articles published in a journal. We can distinguish between expected impact factor and a factor in impact observed. Collaboration these indicators indicators measure the relations that have existed between scientific producers or agents and that ended with the joint publication of scientific results. They are based on data from authorship. The growth of science scientific literature obsolescence brings with it rigged a rapid aging of the scientific literature, i.e., there is a high tendency that scientific publications from falling into disuse with the passage of time. This is due to several causes: changes in the use of scientific literature over time: the information contained in the documents is valid but has been replaced by other more novel.Trend of scientific publications to fall into disuse: the information is valid but it has occurred in a field of knowledge of declining interest.Tendency of publications to reach its maximum level of citations shortly after being published, by what its frequency of use decreases rapidly with time.
Some of the factors that determine the ageing of the scientific literature at a very fast pace are for example, if the used literature handled ephemeral data, if they come in the form of reports or preliminary communications, or if they occur in areas of research that are advancing rapidly.There are indicators that measure the aging of publications. Burton and Kleber introduced the term half-life of scientific literature to refer to the period of time during which was posted half literature active circulating, meaning by this the amount of documents cited in a given time.The ISI and its databases. The Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of Philadelphia, created by Garfield, publishes and maintains a series of products that are used when performing Bibliometric studies.continue reading
The choice of this institution if gave to the interest to study the local reality, being this IES a reference in the region. 5.2 The citizens of the research the choice of the citizens of the research was through the indication of the Coordinators of the courses offered for the IES. In such a way, four professors of different courses had been indicated, called as E1, E2, E3 and E4. 5,3 Metodolgicos procedures the metodolgicos procedures had been divided in two phases: 5.3.1 Collection of data For the collection of data had been used two instruments: the comment and the interview. The comment had as objective to identify as it comes being developed practical pedagogical in the classroom and the interview, to understand as the professor comes constructing this practical. 5.3.2 Analysis of the data the analysis of the data if constitutes in the interpretation of the collected material, from the theoretical referencial.
This phase was materialize with the presentation of the produced material promoting the quarrel of the results. 6. QUARREL the work describes the importance of practical pedagogical the existing ones in superior education. For such was carried through a revision of literature through books, articles and half-structuralized interviews in which three questions (table 1) with professors of areas consisted interdisciplinares, having as base three main points, education, formation and relation professor? pupil, the study was carried through enters the months of August and September of 2010. The gotten answers had been made use in one picture, in order to become more easy the understanding of the reading in view of that the scientific books and articles had subsidized the survey and analysis of the joined data. Finally, a bibliographical contextualizao concerning some books of famous authors of the education where the same ones, exemplificam to know necessary for the development and learning in the current reality of superior education in Brazil. Table 1. Questions carried through to the professors of a private College of Superior Education of Igarassu-FOOT.continue reading
Review of the week from 03.22.2010 to 28.03.2010. Russia has moved to 'Daylight Saving' Time On Saturday night, March 28, Russia moved to the 'summer' time – clocks were moved forward one hour. It should be noted that translating the arrows on the 'summer' and 'Winter' time is now about 70 out of 192 countries. For the first time the clock began to translate in order to save energy in the UK in 1908. In Russia, "translated arrow 'forward one hour for the first time in 1917. Specialists note that the transition to the 'summer' in Russia provides an annual savings of about two billion kilowatt-hours and a half million tons of coal. In addition, as estimated by ecologists, because of 'transition time' in the atmosphere falls to less than 50 thousand tons of harmful particles that are released by burning coal, and accumulates in the soil at least 400 tons of slag. However, 'translation of the arrows' hours are also opponents who argue that the transition to the 'summer' and 'Winter' time has a negative impact on human health, especially children and the elderly.
In November last year, during the annual address to the Federal Assembly, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has proposed reducing the number of time zones in Russia, and his proposal was approved. By order of the Russian government have changed time zones, some Russian regions. For example, the Kemerovo and Samara Region, Udmurtia, Kamchatka Chukotka and not switched on 'summer' time, thus changing its time zone.continue reading
Today, until where we can speak of an independent school? It is possible to speak of autonomy of the professor? The work of the school assists in the construction of the autonomy of the pupil? This is one of the dichotomies lived for the school and the professor: how to construct and to construct themselves as independent in a dependence context? Is possible assistant in the construction of the autonomy of other citizens? How? For Marchesi (2006), she is necessary to recognize that the difficulties of the educational system do not proceed only from the current requirements and the social changes, but, to a large extent, of its proper contradictions that, without a doubt, if become more visible e, also, if they aggravate at the current moment. The process of change of the current society projects for the school papers one as much that differentiated of those developed traditionally; it absorbs the responsibility of to answer to other demands, that go beyond the traditional transmission of the accumulated values and the knowledge. To contribute with the social and affective development, to take care of to the individual differences, to give sensible to the learning, here it is some of its new incumbencies. But what everything this has to see with the autonomy? It has felt to debate on this subject? This question is not ' ' pacfica' ' in our schools? In the origin Greek, autonomy (proper law), means independence, auto determination, auto right of directing. According to Abbagnano (1968), autonomy is a term introduced for Kant to assign to the independence of the will in relation the all desire or object of desire and its capacity to determine itself in compliance with a proper law that is of the reason. For Blacksmith (1999), autonomy has some directions, between which the college to govern it exactly itself; right of if prevailing for proper laws; freedom or moral or intellectual independence; condition for which the man intends to be able to choose the laws that conduct its behavior.continue reading
Many courses for preschool age children focus on learning the alphabet, poems and songs, or simply learns the words. But such an approach is fundamentally wrong. It is necessary that the child not only learn the words like a robot, but also knew how to apply them in different situations. You just need a tongue to speak with a student. In the 18-19 centuries, people of noble Origin said in several languages. They are hired for this child governess who speak a foreign language, which is a day spent with the ward, talking to him. She uttered not a word in Russian, simply because she did not know him.
That's exactly the same way you should be guided to choose a teacher for their child. Will be the most ideal option, if other than the teacher can find a man for whom studied child's native language will be. But there's worth noting that before embarking on the study of language, the way it developed in your child's. After all, if a child does not have enough practice of communication, even in their native language, then what kind of communication in Foreign can there be? Yes, he will be able to learn and use a couple – three sentences, but that all the knowledge and over. If your child has a large vocabulary of Russian speech, he is fluent and can even podiskutirovat with peers, then it is much easier and faster to succumb to a foreign language.
Incidentally, the frequency of ongoing studies. We return to the example above. Nanny or governess with vospituemym spent the whole day. For our lessons conducting classes should be as often as possible, just that the child has not had time to forget what he learned in the previous lesson and always had the skills. It is recommended to conduct such exercises at least four times a week. Ask the teacher to attend a lesson at least once, listen to his ability to speak a foreign language, his ability to properly teach and to learn to pronounce words phonetically. It has great importance, especially to be clearly seen in high school. In no case should a preschooler learn to read and write in the target language. This can begin only after the child is able to do it on native language, and then, under the condition that he fully understands what he says and hears. How was the training, quality or not, should not be judged by another child. For example, the child's neighbors, too, has been studying foreign language, but in the other group, and the domestic uses words the language being studied. This does not mean that your child has learned nothing. Just every child a period of formation of language and its concepts, each of them individuality that can not measure the overall measure. A lot of parents want to see the result almost after the first class. This process requires you to maximize patient, and then you will definitely get result. And in the end, I ask really look at things. At preschool age, not all children under force, but may even do not need a foreign language. You should not force a person for their own self-sufficiency. There are many reasons that you were proud of their child, and if now is not, it would soon be required.continue reading