It basically measures the relationship between received citations and articles published in a journal. We can distinguish between expected impact factor and a factor in impact observed. Collaboration these indicators indicators measure the relations that have existed between scientific producers or agents and that ended with the joint publication of scientific results. They are based on data from authorship. The growth of science scientific literature obsolescence brings with it rigged a rapid aging of the scientific literature, i.e., there is a high tendency that scientific publications from falling into disuse with the passage of time. This is due to several causes: changes in the use of scientific literature over time: the information contained in the documents is valid but has been replaced by other more novel.Trend of scientific publications to fall into disuse: the information is valid but it has occurred in a field of knowledge of declining interest.Tendency of publications to reach its maximum level of citations shortly after being published, by what its frequency of use decreases rapidly with time.
Some of the factors that determine the ageing of the scientific literature at a very fast pace are for example, if the used literature handled ephemeral data, if they come in the form of reports or preliminary communications, or if they occur in areas of research that are advancing rapidly.There are indicators that measure the aging of publications. Burton and Kleber introduced the term half-life of scientific literature to refer to the period of time during which was posted half literature active circulating, meaning by this the amount of documents cited in a given time.The ISI and its databases. The Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of Philadelphia, created by Garfield, publishes and maintains a series of products that are used when performing Bibliometric studies.continue reading
To accustom the dog to hold the objects in two ways: 1-way. Dog on a leash sitting in the left leg trainer. Trainer, holding in his left hand a leash, and the right aportirovochnyi subject turns to the left, call the name of the dog and begins to play the object before the eyes of the dog. Moving object excites the dog, and it tends to grab it. Then the trainer gives the command "Aport!" And allows the dog to grab aportirovochny subject. Once the dog him in the teeth, the team Aport! "Repeat and pronounce the exclamation" Good! ".
To get your dog a more solid grip and prevent ejection aportirovochnogo object, its hold up one end and gently pull to yourself. This encourages the dog to clamp tighter aportirovochnyi subject of teeth. 2-y way. Trainer, with a sitting dog on a leash by his left foot, makes a half turn to the left and right half-step leg. Then his left hand he takes the dog's collar from the withers, and the right brings to her face aportirovochny subject, and gave the command "Aport!, Slightly raises the dog's collar.
Under pressure from the collar the dog reveals soft palate and the trainer, quick motion puts into her subject, at the same time repeating the command "Aport!". As soon as the stick turns out to be a shepherd dog collar released, allowing the dog close my jaw, but the same time move the right arm under the dog's lower jaw in order to prevent her, if she tries to throw out of the mouth aportirovochny subject. If the dog keeps him in the mouth, it encourages an exclamation "Good!" And stroking. After a short exposure gives the command, "Give!", Take away the subject and encourage the dog a treat, petting, shouting, "Good!". In the following lessons lifting the dog's collar is replaced easy to jerk the leash up. Further development of skills is the same as in the first method. Skill is worked out if the dog is on the first team or gesture trainer quickly and reliably finds a different objects thrown at distances up to 25 m long, brings them, and sitting in front of the trainer, paid on the first team. In formulating this skill, the following major error handler: 1. Display goodies or its preparation to ensure to give the dog during its approach to the subject of a trainer 2. Application of aportirovke the same subjects; 3. Rough, with the infliction of pain, insertion into the mouth of the dog aportirovochnogo item 4. With an initial working out grasp the object handler is late to pull it in order to strengthen the grip 5. Needless to distant throwing sticks at the beginning of mining administration.continue reading